India is a diversified country having varied
range of cultures and customs. The Indian art and craft have become
world famous. There is huge demand of Indian embroidered garments
cheap lace wigs. There
is huge variety of embroideries done in India, here are few of them
which have got more fame in terms of popularity in international market :
Zardozi work is an ancient form of
embroidery basically done with gold or silver zari threads. It is also
known as metal embroidery. Although now-a-days it is also done with
colored metal threads. The word 'Zardozi' is derived by combining two
words Zar and Dozi which in Persian language means gold and embroidery
ED Hardy. Therefore it is clear that this art of embroidery was
originated in Persia which was bought to India by Moghuls. Initially it
was done with real metal threads of gold and silver. It was done on
clothes for the rich and royal, wall hangings, bedsheets, etc. In
between the application of pearls and precious stones looks stunning on
it. Basically it is done on silk, crepe, brocade and velvet fabrics.
Zardozi embroidery saw its decline during the reign of Aurangzeb. It was
revived after the independence.
Zardozi work is an extension of
zari embroidery which is done with crochet hook. The embroidery done
gives the appearance of chain stitch. The things required for doing
zardozi are beads, dabka, coiled wires, sequins, etc.
is done with coiled metal wires studded with stones, beads, etc is heavy
in weight therefore is done on fabrics that are thick and heavy like
silk, velvet, stain, crepe, etc. Thus the choice of fabrics is also
royal and expensive. The design to be done is first traced on the
fabric, then it is spread on the wooden frame. Further the embroidery is
done by picking up single thread in the needle and sewing it into the
cloth. This art requires patience and is quite complicated. Expertise is
required to do it properly.
Earlier zardozi was done on wearable
garments and bedspreads mainly for royal families. But now it has got
into the reach of common people also. Clothes with zardozi are an
integral part for any wedding or important functions as it depicts
royalty. Apart from wearable garments, zardozi is also done on cushion
covers, table cloths
lace wigs, wall hangings, fabric purses, etc. This embroidery
is a costly affair.
Mirror embroidery is
the specialty of Gujarat state. This work also originated in Persia
during 13th century. Mirror work is never done alone, it is generally in
combination with other types of stitches or embroideries. This
embroidery is done with both large and small mirrors. Basically it was
more utilized by Jats community. It is embroidered using colorful
threads like red, green, blue, yellow, black, maroon, etc.
art apart from Gujarat state is also practiced in neighboring state of
Rajasthan and in appliqué art of Orissa. Many different types of
stitches like cross stitch, buttonhole stitch and satin stitch are used
in its combination. This art is often done by the aid of machine
embroidery, but in some places it is still done through hand work which
is more time consuming and a costly affair in comparison to the former
technique. The mirrors used are of different shapes and sizes like round
shape, diamond shape, square shape, etc. However round shape is the
most common shape of mirrors used in this form of embroidery.
work is done on different fabrics and types of garments. Apart from
ethnic garments it is crafted even on indo western clothes. It has huge
demand in western countries. Mirror work is done on cushion covers,
purses, bedsheets, curtains, wearable garments, wall hangings,
decorative items, laces, etc. This embroidery has also seen the
limelight of international ramp shows too.
is the traditional form of embroidery of West Bengal. It is running
style of stitch. The embroidery is done on many layers of cloth. It is
done on quilts, bedsheets, blankets, saris, salwar suits, stoles,
It is also known as 'Dorukha'. This word means
making worn out garments into beautiful garments. Therefore it is also
known as recycling art. In earlier times the worn out silk or muslin
clothes where used to be put in piles and stitched together. It is
believed that its date of origin lies during the era of Lord Buddha.
They used to drape themselves with rags of clothes that were stitched
The artists usually embroidery images of human beings,
animals, flowers, geometric designs and mythological figures. Generally
the worker selects the figure of embroidery to which they relate to.
There are different types of kantha done- Sujani kantha, Durjani kantha,
Lep kantha, Archilata kantha, Rumal kantha and Oaar kantha.
types of patterns like jaal, folk life designs, dhan chori, etc are
done in kantha embroidery. The rural women of West Bengal usually do it
on cotton saris with thread taken from the borders of the sari and done
The state of Uttar Pradesh
especially the city of Lucknow is considered to be the hub of Chikankari
embroidery. Chikankari is derived from the word Chakeen that means
elegant patterns on the fabric which is a Persian word. Earlier it was
done with white thread on muslin clothes. However now it is been done on
various types of fabrics like cotton, linen nylon, georgette, chiffon
and synthetic fabrics. Apart from wearable garments it is also done on
various other things like curtains, bedsheets, table cloths, pillow
covers and cushion covers.
Unlike earlier times it is not only
done on white colored cloths but also fabrics of various colors. But the
thread used for the embroidery is generally white. Various motifs are
embroidered through it like floral motifs which include flowers like
rose, lotus, jasmine, creepers, etc.
There are many types of
stitches used to make beautiful chikankari embroidery like chain stitch,
buttonhole stitch, French knots and running stitch. The most beautiful
is the motif having design created in the form of net or jhali all over
the garment by generating thread tension. Shadow work is also done by
chikan embroidery which is done on the opposite side of the garment.
are three types of chikankari stitches ;
1) Jali work - It is
done in the form of net design spread all over the fabric.
stitches - The flat stitches are delicate and very fine stitch. It
gives the look as if the embroidery is itself the texture of the
3) Embossed stitches - This stitch provides beaded type
of look to the garment.
In international apparel market also the
demand of chikankari embroidered garments have seen a steep rise. The
artisans of Uttar Pradesh earn foreign currency for the country. Many
high profile designers intricate this form of art in their collections.
is very rich in terms of art and crafts because of different
communities and culture of its people. The above was just a glimpse of
four the many types of embroidery art present in India. These arts have
acclaimed international fame and are in great demand in western
countries. After independence these arts were revived by the Indian
government which improved the declining situation of the Indian
embroideries. The main support came from the Indian government.