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Fri, Jul 6th - 3:42PM

Home Inspections – 12 Areas You Should Know

The Barrie Home Inspector discusses the twelve most common items found during a home inspection. These are items that are commonly found during a home inspection but are not listed in any order of importance.

 

1.  Lot and Roof Drainage

 

Keeping water out of your house in one of the most important areas to be considered in building design and annual maintenance checklists. Eavetroughs collect large amounts of water, average is 160 gallons per hour, which is then directed down to ground level to be dispersed. This is where most systems have problems, from missing extensions to reversed splash pads, and it is important to ensure all water is directed away from your home.  I have actually come across homes where the sump pump was pumping water out into the exterior corner of the house where the water ran right back down the foundation to be re-cycled again.  Areas around foundations are prone to settling and should be built back up to ensure that any water will flow away from home.

 

2.  Foundations

 

The primary function of the foundation is to transfer the load of your house unto your footings. Water can enter your home through cracks and holes in your foundation. Cement block foundations are required to be parged and the coated with damp proofing product to prevent this. Poured concrete foundations are required to have form holes sealed to prevent water entry. Minor cracks in foundations can be attributed to settlement of building or shrinkage cracks which would appear in poured concrete foundations.  Any crack in your foundation is a potential source of water entry into your basement.  If your area has excellent drainage and surface water is not an issue then sealing your cracks yourself could be an option, if not then a professional will seal poured concrete cracks using injected foam or epoxy for around 3 to 600 dollars.  Sealing with epoxy will make the cracked area stronger than surrounding untouched area. Horizontal cracks in basements are stress cracks and usually should be inspected by engineer to ensure safety of the home.

 

3. Cladding

 

There are many types of cladding used in homes today, we are going to discuss brick veneer and vinyl siding, the most common types of cladding used in new homes in Barrie, ON. 

 

Brick – There are two common types of brick in use today, clay and cement bricks, clay being the most expensive and more durable of the two.  The most common defects in brick are caused by poor workmanship and settling of the house or foundation. Checking the brick work for cracks in mortar is very important part of your home inspection. Finding cracks prior to moisture and freezing damage occurring can drastically reduce the amount of work required to repair problem. Corbelled brick corners are an area where cracked mortar is very common but is an easy fix. Step cracks usually indicate a structural type problem is present and deeper investigation is required. Home owners can cause damage to bricks by building planters which allow soil to contact brick, this will result in spalling of brick face and eventually the brick will crumble and require replacement.

 

Vinyl Siding – This product has proven to be an attractive and low maintenance alternative to brick. If not properly installed vinyl siding can come loose which will make it very susceptible to damage. Properly installed siding has to be able to expand and contract without warping, this is done by not hammering in nails tightly and the fastening slot will allow siding to expand and contract with changing temperatures. Washing your vinyl siding spring and fall is also a good idea as this will help prevent staining from air borne contaminants. Vinyl siding is susceptible to cracking, especially in winter months when cold temperatures can make it extremely brittle.

 

4. Windows

 

Windows come in all sizes and shapes with many different types of opening models. We are going to concentrate on mainly the casement style window, as this is the type of window, which commonly has defects.  Casement windows commonly have problems with the cranking mechanism.  Stripped windows cranks are commonly found on windows in children’s bedrooms and are mainly due to the fact that in the winter these windows tend to freeze up and then when the crank is operated, a stripped mechanism results.

 

Broken seals in thermal units are another common defect found in windows. Windows around 15 years, and older, are usually found to have problems with leaking thermal units. There is a process that involves inserting tiny one-way vents into these units which can eliminate the moisture problem and save you money.  The “R” value of windows is not so high that this procedure would create a huge heat loss.

 

Then there is the common defects in windows, which can include, no caulking, cracked glass panes, improperly trims, sagging headers above windows, require painting and last but not least cracked or rotting wood.

 

5. Roof

 

We are going to concentrate on asphalt or fibreglass shingles as this is by far the most common type of product used in new homes today.  Shingles can last anywhere from 15 to 25 years depending on quality of product and environment that they endure.  Shingles on south side of home usually fail first due to greater exposure to sun and UV radiation. Proper venting is a very important factor that can greatly affect the life of your shingles. Building code requires 1 square foot of vents for every 300 square foot of roof. Ensuring adequate venting is important part of home inspection, a lot of homes have inadequate soffit venting due to insulation preventing continuous movement of air.  This allows moisture and heat to build up in your attic and will dramatically reduce life of shingles. Inspecting flashing, valleys, skylights, vents and eave trough are another important factor of your home inspection. Ensure your inspector has a ladder and walks your roof if he is able.

 

6. Furnace / Air Conditioning

 

Furnaces have an estimated life span of 15 to 20 years and this can vary greatly with maintenance being the biggest factor in extending life of your furnace.  Your furnace cannot have any holes, be rusted through in any area and must be hooked up to an approved venting system. If connected to a “B” vent, a one-inch clearance must be maintained from combustibles, which also includes insulation. Check your flame colour, yellow flames indicate incomplete combustion which may be fixed with a simple tune up from your furnace technician. Many furnaces have no cap for filter cover which allows for both heat and cold air to escape into your basement. Your HVAC duct should be taped using metallic duct tape to block any areas where air is escaping from your system. Humidifiers are a common cause of water source for damaging furnaces; they become clogged and overflow allowing water to enter body of furnace causing premature failure of unit.

 

Central air conditioners are essentially a sealed unit. Using a temperature gauge can determine if unit is operating at a level that is acceptable. I use 58 degrees F as a bench mark in testing in hot weather.  This ensures that unit will maintain your home at a comfortable temperature. All lines and insulation are checked for any damage or required replacement.

 

7. Electrical

 

The number one concern for homeowners and insurance companies is aluminium wiring. Installed in the early seventies as a substitute for high price copper, aluminium has generated a lot of negative press, some maybe not deserved. Knowledge of aluminium wire is required to be disclosed by the home seller. Consequently some people are creatively hiding alummum wiring. This might involve installing wire so insulation covers all exposed wire and running copper from main panel to junction boxes where it is connected to the existing aluminium wire.

 

Adding pony panels, which allowable and recommended, is a great way of expanding your main panels resources. I came across one pony panel, full sized 100 amp, which was powered off supply cables in switch box.  This panel was noted in listing as an asset! There are a myriad of minor electrical problems to be checked in your home. Another main panel observation is that many people rather than add a breaker just attach two or more wires to an existing breaker, this is a not permitted and is a potential fire risk. Open junction boxes, missing covers, wiring contacting heat ducts and un-supported wiring are common defects noted on majority of inspections.

 

8. Plumbing

 

The other half of the keeping water away from your house equation is your interior plumbing system. Lack of caulking and sub-standard products or workmanship is also a big offender when it comes to keeping your house dry. Galvanised pipe is another item that insurance companies may be concerned about. Galvanised pipe tends to corrode from the inside out leaving no visible signs of impending failure, which tends to make insurance companies a little nervous about insuring homes with galvanised plumbing.

 

9. Insulation

 

Homes today have a much higher insulation R-value than older models, the standard for your attic insulation is R-32.  Coupled with vapour barriers this is a very important part of your homes building envelope.  Many homes have lots of insulation but it has been compromised by workmen installing products such as pot lights and never remedied. The un-suspecting homeowner never realises the loss of heat and release of moisture that is taking place.  I have inspected homes where there has been sun rooms added on and for two or more years that complete area has not had any insulation.

 

Vermiculite insulation is receiving a lot of attention due to asbestos hazard.  Most vermiculite was produced from Libby mine in Montana and contains asbestos. There is some type of vermiculite that has no asbestos risk, which can only be determined by laboratory testing.  Homeowners are obligated to disclose any vermiculite insulation that they know of.  This is another area where your home inspector can help and possibly save you a lot of money and headaches.

 

10. Mould or Mold

 

We are addressing both Canadian and American mould or mold problems, eh!

 

Mould has been a inspection headliner for quite a number of years. Mould is present everywhere, outside, in your home and sometimes even in the wood you are building with.  Mould requires three items to grow, they are;  warm environment, protein supply (paper on drywall will do) and moisture. As you can see if you have any water or moisture problems in your home for any length of time then you probably have mould somewhere in your home.  That is why it is so important to keep water out of your home and control the water you do have in your home by the proper use of exhaust vents, HRV units and humidity control.

 

11. Structural

 

The structural component of your home includes all the items that comprise the supporting elements of your home, which include but are limited to; footings, floors, foundation, walls, columns and piers and roofing system. Visual inspection involves looking for cracks, missing supports, under-sized support construction, twisted or cracked beams, joists, rafters, trusses or support members. Consider your structure as the exterior and interior framework that encompasses your home.  Defects in this system can be considered serious and should not be taken lightly as you whole home depends on this system.

 

12. Miscellaneous

 

Here is a quick list of some of the items that I have come across that might not have been discussed above:

 

Septic tanks – Water pooling at the end of your bed or signs of effluent leaking are sure signs that you have some kind or septic bed problem.  Buyer beware!

Chimney – Masonry chimneys can be visually ok but not approved for type of appliance you are using.  Wood stoves and fireplaces usually require WETT cert for insurance.

Caulking – Any two different surfaces that are exposed to weather should be caulked. For example your window and siding should always be caulked.

Trees – Ensure there are no dead trees on property that might damage your house or any of your neighbour’s property. Also trim branches away from any siding or roofing product.

Concrete Steps – Must be either cantilevered or on frost footing.

Handrails – Required to be 900 mm high in most exterior applications.

Decks – If over 23 5/8 inches  (600mm) from ground are required to have guards & handrails.

Basement Bedrooms – Required to have separate exit on same level or window that is minimum area of 0.35 M2 with no dimension being less than 15 inches (380 mm).

Bathrooms – shall have either exhaust fan or opening window.

Hot Water Heater – Safety Pressure valve shall have vent directing blow-off to floor.

Garages – Required to have fume barrier and auto door closure if interior door installed.

 

These are just some of the common types of defects encountered during a residential home inspection, there are thousands of items that could possibly be identified.

Barrie Home Inspector

Home Inspections Barrie

Barrie Home Inspections

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Wed, Jul 4th - 3:41AM

Aluminum Wiring - Special Precautions for the Homeowner

If you’re living in a house that was built between the years 1965 to 1973, there’s a good chance your home is at increased risk for electrical fires if it has aluminum house wiring. During that period, about 1.5 million homes were wired with aluminum wiring because copper wire was too expensive.

Unfortunately, this older aluminum house wiring proved to be a poor substitute for copper. Research conducted by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission shows that homes wired with aluminum wire manufactured before 1972 are 55 times more likely to have one or more connections reach "Fire Hazard Conditions" than a home wired with copper. After 1973, copper once again become the predominant wire used in new house construction, renovations and rewiring.

For those homes that have aluminum wiring, a few simple steps can help prevent some of the potential hazards. The Leviton Institute recommends that homeowners consider calling in a qualified electrician to inspect all the switches and receptacles in their homes and, if necessary, replace them with devices made specifically for aluminum wiring.

These devices carry the designation of CO/ALR, which stands for copper/aluminum.

Underwriters Laboratory lists CO/ALR devices primarily for use with aluminum wire because they use special metals at the terminal areas that are compatible with aluminum wire.

Aluminum wiring has "Al" or "Aluminum" marked every few feet along the length of its insulating jacket.

CO/ALR wiring devices, like the one shown above, have special terminals designed just for aluminum wiring.

How can you tell if your home has aluminum wiring? One way is to visually inspect the bare wiring at the circuit breakers in the panel box. Look for the silver color typical of aluminum wire. You can also identify aluminum wire by visually inspecting any exposed house wiring, such as the wires in an attic, garage, or unfinished basement. Aluminum wiring has "Al" or "Aluminum" marked every few feet along the length of its insulating jacket.

Also watch for the warning signs that typically precede a serious electrical problem. These signs include faceplates on outlets or switches that are warm to the touch, lights that flicker on and off, circuits that no longer work, and the smell of burning plastic at outlets or switches. Because of the potential dangers posed by aluminum wiring, the Leviton Institute advises homeowners not to open, disassemble or touch any electrical panels, devices, or components if you are not familiar with aluminum wiring.

Other areas in the house that should be inspected include lighting fixtures, such as chandeliers and outdoor porch lights, and appliances that are wired directly to a branch circuit, such as an air-conditioning unit.

If you suspect that your home has aluminum wiring, have a qualified electrician conduct a thorough home inspection. Even room additions or circuits rewired or added between 1965 and 1973 may contain aluminum wiring.

Supplied for your information by Napoleon Home Inspections,

Certified Home Inspector for Barrie, Ontario and area.

Article Source

Napoleon Home Inspections - Barrie Home Inspector  "Ask the Experts" advice forum for the home owner.


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Mon, Jul 2nd - 4:47AM

Vermiculite Insulation - Asbestos Alert

 Health and Safety Advisory: Vermiculite Insulation May Contain Asbestos

When the Libby Mine in Montana began production of vermiculite ore in the 1920s, the mineral was becoming well known for its fire-resistant and insulation qualities. The Libby Mine supplied the majority of the world market with vermiculite-based insulation, and sold it in Canada as Zonolite Attic Insulation, and possibly other brand names, until 1990.
Today, vermiculite from the Libby Mine is known for a far less-desirable trait: it may contain asbestos, a known respiratory hazard and cancer-causing substance. For this reason it has not been widely used since the mid-1980s, and has been off the market in Canada for the past 10 years. As recently as March 2004, however, Health Canada issued a health advisory to the public, warning of the possible presence of asbestos fibres in some vermiculite insulation. These asbestos fibres, said the advisory, may pose a respiratory health risk if disturbed during maintenance, renovation or demolition.

The Health Canada advisory followed national media coverage of members of a Manitoba family afflicted with mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer. The attic of the family home contained vermiculite insulation contaminated with asbestos.

What you should know about the risk
· Not all vermiculite contains asbestos fibres. However, to be safe and in the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume that if buildings have older vermiculite-based insulation, it may contain some asbestos.
· When inhaled, asbestos fibres can cause asbestosis (a scarring of the lungs which makes breathing difficult), mesothelioma (a rare cancer of the lining of the chest or abdominal cavity) and lung cancer.
· The health risk is related to the inhalation of airborne asbestos liberated by the disturbance of the insulation.
· There is currently no evidence of risk to health if the insulation is enclosed behind wallboards and floorboards, isolated in an attic, or otherwise kept from exposure to the interior environment.
· There is no evidence that vermiculite currently available for horticultural purposes (e.g., potting soil), poses any danger when used as directed.
Safety precautions
· Do not allow children to play in an attic with open areas of vermiculite-based insulation. Make sure anyone working in the attic knows about the possible presence of asbestos.
· Do not use the attic for storage if retrieving items from it may disturb the insulation. Avoid disturbing vermiculite-based insulation in any way.
· If you must go into the attic, walk on boards in order to minimize disturbance of the insulation. Use an appropriate respirator mask (common dust masks are NOT effective against asbestos fibres). Do not remain in the attic any longer than necessary.
· If you have vermiculite-based insulation and decide to have it removed, have trained and qualified asbestos removal professionals handle the job. NEVER attempt to remove the insulation yourself.
· If you plan to remodel or renovate in a manner that would disturb the vermiculite, speak to trained, qualified asbestos removal professionals before proceeding.
· Seal all cracks and holes in the ceilings of the rooms below the insulation (for example, apply caulking around light fixtures, ceiling fans and the attic hatch) to prevent insulation from sifting through.
· Even if you suspect you have vermiculite-based insulation in your walls, as a precautionary step, seal all cracks and holes. For example, apply caulking around window and doorframes, along baseboards and around electrical outlets.
· The best way to minimize the risk of asbestos exposure is to avoid disturbing vermiculite-based insulation in any way.
If you work in a building that may contain vermiculite insulation containing asbestos, direct your concerns to the custodian department. In leased and owned buildings, they are responsible to ensure the building is safe for occupancy, on behalf of tenant departments.

The Barrie Home Inspector

Barrie Home Inspections


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