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Wed, Apr 23rd - 7:17AM

Canadian Prime Minister Flip Flops on Election Rigging Scandal

Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper has flip-flopped on the recent election rigging scandal. Stephen Harper denies Conservatives committed fraud by using Elections Canada to pay for their television advertising.

In 2000, as head of the National Citizens Coalition, Stephen Harper led an appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada against election spending limits for third parties.

He opposed such limits, and lost. The Supreme Court in 2004 held that "the overarching objective of the spending limits is electoral fairness." Spending limits exist, in its words, to "level the playing field" so that parties with significant financial resources cannot "dominate the political discourse."

Now jump ahead to 2006. Harper is leader of the opposition and has an election to fight. Nationally, spending limits for each party have been set at $18.5 million. Locally, limits vary but are about $70,000 for each riding.

National TV ads are expensive. The Conservative party needs more money to pay for them. A decision is made. If it were to give local ridings money, which it can do, those ridings could give that money right back to it – "in-and-out," as Elections Canada would later describe the scheme – to buy TV time locally in order to run ads that would be identical to its national ads except that, at the end of each ad at the bottom of the TV screen, in small print, would appear the words, "Paid for by (name of local candidate)."

In this way, according to Conservative party thinking, it could have ads with no less of a national message, and impact, but paid for by local campaigns. So instead of being able to spend only $18.5 million nationally, it could spend much more.

Wait – it gets better. After each election, by law, every local campaign is entitled to receive a rebate from Elections Canada based on what that campaign spent. In this instance, according to Conservative party logic, because this "in-and-out" money would be considered local money, the rebate received by each participating riding would be that much higher.

For example, a riding that would otherwise have spent only $30,000 on its local campaign, having received an additional $40,000 from the Conservative party, then giving it right back for the TV ads, would be deemed to have spent $70,000, entitling it to receive $42,000 as a rebate instead of $18,000.

For each riding that would mean having more money to pay off the debts of that campaign, more money for the next election, then more "in-and-out" money during the next election – election after election. The money would come from Elections Canada, which means, of course, from the taxpayer, which means, of course, from you and me.

But this isn't what Elections Canada intended. Spending limits exist, as the Supreme Court stated, so that "no one voice is overwhelmed by another."

Elections Canada set national and local limits for this same reason. It also intended that national spending be for national purposes, and local spending for local purposes.

Imagine for a minute that the Conservatives' position is correct, and that "in-and-out" transactions are allowable. It would then be possible for the national Conservative campaign to "encourage" every local riding in the country, all 308 of them, to receive, then send back, not just $40,000 of their $70,000 local spending limit, but $60,000 or more.

It would mean, all for the price of a small tag line at the end of an ad – "Paid for by (name of local candidate)" – that the national campaign could spend to its $18.5 million limit, plus (say) $60,000 multiplied by 308 ridings, or another almost $18.5 million – in total, $37 million.

It would also mean that each local riding, having spent its limit of $70,000, would receive a rebate of $42,000 to spend between election campaigns, for pamphlets, for local or national "in-and-out" ads. So that when the next campaign began, much of their local spending limit could again go "in-and-out" for the purposes of the national campaign.

When something is too good to be true, no matter how hard you spin it to Elections Canada, to the courts, or to the Canadian people, usually it is.

There is a principle that applies to all facets of our common law that you can't do indirectly what is expressly prohibited directly. The Elections Act, in a specific provision, even states this principle directly. The "in-and-out" nature of the Conservatives' arrangements seems, ahem, fishy.

It suggests, at best, a mind that isn't quite sure of the rightness of what it is doing. As well, it seems in some cases as if these "in-and-out" transactions happened too fast for the Conservative party's national office and their local candidates to get their stories straight. Some candidates, in Elections Canada affidavits filed in Court, said that the reason they were making these "in-and-out" transactions was to contribute to the national ad buy.


Elections Canada has ruled that for advertising to be considered local, it must directly promote that local candidate or oppose his or her opponent, so that "Paid for by Candidate X" would have to be understood as "direct promotion."

Beyond all this is a far larger problem for the Conservatives – Stephen Harper. Besides his repeated comments about the courts and judiciary, and his oft-demonstrated attitude of "I want to do what I want to do, and I'm going to do it," it is his 2000 court case, Harper v. Canada, the leading case in the field, that ended up in the Supreme Court of Canada.

He brought it. He fought it. He lost it. He knows the issue of spending limits backward and forward. He knows what the Supreme Court said. He knows the law, its intention, its spirit, everything about it. Yet, in the election of 2006, he did what he did. It is called Fraud and he knows it.

It will be up to Elections Canada and the courts to decide what they think about his actions. Then, in an election, it will be up to Canadians to decide for themselves.

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Comment (1)

Mon, Apr 21st - 11:40AM

Hamas ready to talk Peace

Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter said Monday that Hamas – the Islamic militant group that has called for the destruction of Israel – is prepared to accept the right of the Jewish state to "live as a neighbour next door in peace."

Carter relayed the message in a speech in Jerusalem after meeting last week with top Hamas leaders in Syria. It capped a nine-day visit to the Middle East aimed at breaking the deadlock between Israel and Hamas militants who rule the Gaza Strip.

Hamas leaders "said that they would accept a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders" and they would "accept the right of Israel to live as a neighbour next door in peace," Carter said.

The borders he referred to were the frontiers that existed before Israel captured large swaths of Arab lands in the 1967 Mideast War – including the West Bank, east Jerusalem and Gaza.

In the past, Hamas officials have said they would establish a ``peace in stages" if Israel were to withdraw to the borders it held before 1967. But it has been evasive about how it sees the final borders of a Palestinian state and has not abandoned its official call for Israel's destruction.

Israel, which evacuated Gaza in 2005, has accepted the idea of a Palestinian state there and in the West Bank. But it has resisted Palestinian demands that it return to its 1967 frontiers.

Carter urged Israel to engage in direct negotiations with Hamas, saying failure to do so was hampering peace efforts.

"We do not believe that peace is likely and certainly that peace is not sustainable unless a way is found to bring Hamas into the discussions in some way," he said. "The present strategy of excluding Hamas and excluding Syria is just not working."

Israel considers Hamas to be a terrorist group and has shunned Carter because of his meetings with Hamas' supreme chief, Khaled Mashaal, and other Hamas figures. Syria harbours Hamas' exiled leadership in its capital, Damascus, and supports the Lebanese Hezbollah guerrillas who warred with Israel in the summer of 2006.

Carter said Hamas promised it wouldn't undermine Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas' efforts to reach a peace deal with Israel, as long as the Palestinian people approved it in a referendum. In such a scenario, he said Hamas would not oppose a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza.

Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri in Gaza said Hamas' readiness to put a peace deal to a referendum "does not mean that Hamas is going to accept the result of the referendum."

Such a referendum, he said, would have to be voted on by Palestinians living all over the world. They number about 9.3 million, including some four million living in the West Bank, Gaza and east Jerusalem.

The only senior Israeli official to meet with Carter was President Shimon Peres. During their meeting, Peres scolded Carter for meeting with the Islamic militant group.

Israel says Carter's talks embolden Palestinian extremists and hurt Palestinian moderates as they try to make peace with the Jewish state. Abbas, who rules only the West Bank, is in a bitter rivalry with Hamas.

"The problem is not that I met with Hamas in Syria," Carter said Monday. "The problem is that Israel and the United States refuse to meet with someone who must be involved."

Carter said Israeli-Palestinian peacemaking has "regressed" since a U.S.-hosted conference in Annapolis, Md., in November. He faulted Israel for continuing to build on disputed land the Palestinians want for a future state and for its network of roadblocks that severely hamper both Israelis and Palestinians travelling in the West Bank. "The prison around Gaza has been tightened," he said, referring to Israel's blockade of the territory since the Hamas takeover.

Now that Carter has managed to bridge the gap, will Israel join the peace talks?

In other news, oil prices spiked last night to a record US$117.40 a barrel after a Japanese oil tanker was hit by a rocket near Yemen and militants in Nigeria claimed two attacks on pipelines.

Check out the History of Oil Prices at Hundred Dollar Oil.

Comment (1)

Sun, Apr 20th - 1:05PM

April 20th 2008 - The Sunday Edition

The Lilith eZine Sunday Edition

Letter from the Editor

Spring is here and I want to be outside so I will keep this short so you can all go outside and enjoy the wonderful weather.

I figure we should all enjoy it while it lasts because in two months meteorologists are predicting record breaking heat waves, lots of smog alerts and are already getting ready to warn people to stay inside, stay in air conditioned rooms and avoid becoming dehydrated.

Lest we forget what happened in 2005 when even chilly Canada had people dying from dehydration and heat exhaustion.

Suzanne MacNevin

The Art History Archive

White Box Gallery - Why should art galleries be so boring?

Estonian Feminist Artists

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The Nano Car Revolution - Small Cars the New Trend

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Military Suicides in Canada Double

The Fashion eZine

Prostitution in the Fashion Industry

The Art History Archive, Feminist eZine and Lilith eZine are subsidiaries of the Lilith Gallery Network.

Comment (1)

Wed, Apr 16th - 5:01PM

Bush wants greenhouse gas cuts by 2025
Revising his stand on global warming, President George W. Bush called today for a halt in the growth of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 and urged other major polluting nations to develop national goals to address climate change.

In a Rose Garden speech on global warming, Bush expressed concern that Congress might pass climate legislation that would hurt economic growth. Critics of his energy policy have argued that the Bush administration has dragged its feet in addressing the problem. But Bush argued that his staff was working intently to address the contentious issue about greenhouse gases responsible for global warming.

While setting a broad goal, the president offered only a general outline – and few specifics – about how to achieve the objectives. Bush's proposal was quickly denounced by congressional Democrats and environmentalists as falling far short of what is needed to stabilize the concentration of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere.

"Like many other countries, America's national plan will be a comprehensive blend of market incentives and regulations to reduce emissions by encouraging clean and efficient energy technologies," Bush said. "We're willing to include this plan in a binding international agreement, so long as our fellow major economies are prepared to include their plans in such an agreement."

The president also called for putting the brakes on greenhouse gas emissions from electric power plants within 10 years to 15 years.

"We're doing a lot to protect this environment. We've laid a solid foundation for further progress. While these measures will bring us a long way toward achieving our new goal, we've got to do more in the power-generation sector," the president said.

"To reach our 2025 goal, we will need to more rapidly slow the growth of power sector greenhouse gas emissions so that they peak within 10 to 15 years, and decline thereafter," he said. "By doing so, we will reduce emission levels in the power sector well below where they were projected to be when we first announced our climate strategy in 2002.

"There are a number of ways to achieve these reductions, but all responsible approaches depend on accelerating the development and deployment of new technologies," Bush added.

Rep. Edward Markey, who chairs a House committee on global warming, said the president's emissions goals were aimed at ``freezing out real solutions to the threat of global warming" being considered by Congress.

Senate Democrats said the president's plan would allow continued growth of greenhouse gases for nearly two decades during which the government estimates U.S. heat-trapping emissions will grow. U.S. emissions from electric power plants alone are expected to grow by 16 per cent.

Sen. Barbara Boxer, chairwoman of the Senate Energy and Environment Committee, called Bush's new climate strategy "worse than doing nothing ... the height of irresponsibility."

PLEASE NOTE: George W. Bush will be 80 years old by 2025 and likely won't live to see those greenhouse gas cuts. It is a bit like Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper promising to cut greenhouse gases by 2050. He has no intention of making the cuts himself, he's just trying to appear more eco-friendly.



Agriculture & Fishing

Farming Demographics and Intercropping
Is Biofuel the Fuel of the Future?
Jellyfish Swarms feeding on Polluted Waters
Climate Change and High Wheat Prices


Postmodern Architecture - Urban Cactus
Buildings That Breathe
Building Green
The Future of Condos: Pyramids

Cars & Transportation

The Eco-Car Battleground
The Hydrogen Equinox
Green Cars in 2020
Carburetor Efficiency
21 Ways to Make a Better TTC
Is Biofuel the Fuel of the Future?
Hydrogen Power becoming a Reality
Laws pushing zero-emission cars
Is hydrogen power the future?
Cost, infrastructure hinder hydrogen
China auto makers roll out 'clean' cars
Fuel-cell work on track
Iceland's hydrogen ship heralds fossil-free future

Conservation & Clean Up

The War on Plastic Bags

Ecofeminism & Ecofashion

Introduction to Ecofeminism
Woman Equals Nature?
The Rise of Ecofashion
European Ecofashion
A Quick Guide to Natural Beauty
The War on Plastic Bags


Home Energy Saving Tips
Solar Power becoming Profitable
2020: Social, Economic and Technological Change
The Solar Powered Myth

Global Warming

Weather News of 2007
2005: The Hottest Year in Canadian History
Ancient ice shelf snaps free from Canada
Hurricanes in Europe?
Global Warming in Russia & the North Atlantic
Climate Change will effect Economy
David Suzuki launches Green Tour
Australian Drought
$25 million prize for reducing global warming
Military Leaders Fight Global Warming
Is Biofuel the Fuel of the Future?
Rising Sea Levels
Climate Change and Pollution causing Jellyfish Swarms
The Theory of Rapid Climate Change
Climate Change and Food Shortages


Climate Change will effect Economy
Stephen Harper Vs Kyoto and the Environment
Stephen Harper is a Global Warming Denier
Environment hurt by Quebec Separatism
Tory Green and the Oil Industry
Al Gore no longer a bore
Toronto Green


Comment (1)

Tue, Apr 15th - 5:14PM

Oil prices spike over $114 US

Energy traders rewrote the record books again today, pushing oil futures past US$114 a barrel as gasoline and diesel prices struck new highs of their own at the pump in the United States. Light, sweet crude for May delivery jumped as high as $114.08 a barrel shortly after regular trading ended on the New York Mercantile Exchange.

Concerns about the American recession, insufficient global supply, stoked by a high-profile report by the International Energy Agency that said Russian oil production dropped this year for the first time in a decade, was largely responsible for the surge. Oil prices rose as high as $113.99 a barrel during the regular session before settling at $113.79, up $2.03 from a record close of $111.76 a barrel on Monday.

Part of the problem is that the US dollar is so weak internationally and the Bush administration is asleep at the wheel.

Check out the History of Oil Prices at Hundred Dollar Oil.

Comment (1)

Sun, Apr 13th - 1:23PM

April 13th 2008 - The Sunday Edition

The Lilith eZine Sunday Edition

Letter from the Editor

Toronto Mayor David Miller has started a petition to ban handguns in Canada, but really that is just a smoke screen. While I support the proposed ban to a limited extent, what we really need is tougher border security on both sides of the US-Canada border.

Hypothetically if I wanted to I could quite easily walk across the border under the pretense of cross-border shopping, purchase a new or used gun in either Michigan or New York state, and walk back with it in my purse and no one (thanks to reverse discrimination against women) would even think to search me or my backpack, purse or shopping bags. I would be just one of thousands of cross-border shoppers who go across the border every day to find cheaper deals. I could then sell the gun on the Canadian side of the border for a tidy profit, paying for all the cheap goods I purchased in the malls south of here and then some.

So much for border security.

We have three options:

#1. Super Tight Border Security - Nothing gets across without being searched, X-rayed and interviewed by border patrol guards on both sides of the border. No more of this cross-border shopping nonsense. Only transport trucks, tourists, people doing business or working on the other side would get across and there would be high fees just to cross the border.

#2. Invest heavily in getting more undercover police officers to catch gun smugglers and illegal arms dealers.

#3. The status quo. Leave things as they are. Continue to allow the flow of drugs/guns and whatever across the border and be prepared to pay the consequences whenever our citizens get killed.

Banning handguns would make it easier to prosecute criminals who take part in violent crimes, but it isn't going to solve the problem of cross border gun smuggling. We can ban handguns if we want to, but it is just one step towards finding a much larger solution.

Suzanne MacNevin

Toronto Mayor David Miller's Petition

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Rinspeed sQuba - The first amphibious car for the mass market

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Living in Capitalist Times - Survival of the Wealthiest in Ontario Schools

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The Art History Archive, Feminist eZine and Lilith eZine are subsidiaries of the Lilith Gallery Network.

Comment (1)

Fri, Apr 11th - 1:44PM

Canadian economists stunned as exports grow

Canadian economists were stunned today as Canadian exports grew 3.8% in February despite a recession in the USA according to a new report from Statistics Canada. The increase resulted in $39.3 billion in exports in February.

Canada also imported less in February, down 2%, to $34.4 billion, creating a roughly $5 billion monthly surplus, most of which is due to Canada's trade surplus with the United States (which in February soared to $8.1 billion).

Normally during a recession people would slow down on their consumption, but because the USA's economy is largely credit based they continue to keep consuming anyway and just go farther into debt. Hence the current subprime credit crisis.

Sector by Sector

All sectors reported higher exports in February, with energy and automotive shipments making up two-thirds of the increase.

Automotive exports rose 11.4 per cent to $5.6 billion, the biggest jump since December 2006. Higher shipments of passenger cars powered most of the growth, although exports of motor vehicle parts rose 5 per cent and shipments of trucks and other motor vehicles increased 7.4 per cent.

Energy exports rose for the fourth month in a row, rising 3.8 per cent to a record $9.7 billion, driven by higher shipments of crude petroleum and natural gas. Exports of petroleum and coal products, electricity and coal slipped.

Exports of industrial goods and materials rose for the second month in a row, up 2.8 per cent to $8.9 billion, and exports of metals and alloys hit record levels, buoyed by gold prices, which hit a historic high in February.

Meanwhile, metal ore exports rose 12.8 per cent, largely as a result of record exports of iron ores, concentrates and scrap.

Chemical and plastics exports declined 4.3 per cent to $2.7 billion.

Exports of machinery and equipment rose 1.5 per cent to $7.5 billion, pushed by aircraft and other transportation equipment.

Forestry product shipments were up 3.9 per cent, to $2.2 billion, the first rise in 11 months. Agricultural and fishing products rose 1 per cent to a high of $3.1 billion, on record high canola exports.

The majority of import sectors lost ground in February, dragged down by widespread declines in energy products. Imports of machinery and equipment slipped 0.6 per cent to $9.5 billion, while automotive imports advanced 2.7 per cent to $6.3 billion, led by motor vehicle parts.

The Canada eZine - News, Entertainment and Politics for Canadians

Welcome to the Canada eZine. This is a subsection of the Lilith eZine where only articles about Canada are shown. As Canadians we admit we are fiercely ...

Comment (1)

Thu, Apr 10th - 11:47AM

Oil prices near record price again.

Oil just keeps going up and analysts are predicting it will top $120 or $130 before the end of April. Some analysts are predicting prices as high as $150 to $180 before the end of summer.

Today oil reached $111 (U.S.) a barrel, just shy of the $111.80 set in March.

Check out the History of Oil Prices at Hundred Dollar Oil.

Meanwhile the Euro rose to record heights, the American dollar continued to plummet under the American recession and the Canadian dollar remains surprisingly stable.

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Comment (1)

Wed, Apr 9th - 10:53AM

Oil prices soaring again...
Oil prices went up $2.31 today to US$110.81 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange, flirting with the all-time record of $111.80 set in March.

Check out the History of Oil prices at Hundred Dollar Oil.

Comment (1)

Wed, Apr 9th - 10:18AM

Gun Culture, Hatemail, oh my!

A Formulaic Response to Hatemail:

We've recently been inundated by a small deluge of pro-gun letters citing lack of references, lack of bibliography and claiming shoddy information regarding the opinion piece located at:

We respect your opinion on this matter and hope you will respect ours.

As some of you have noted the Feminist eZine archives articles on feminism for research purposes, but not all the articles include statistics. The one you've responded to is largely an opinion piece which is concerned with our view on using firearms to support feminism (and in reverse, using feminism to support the right to bear arms).

The article in question was co-written by myself, Suzanne MacNevin, and our assistant editor Charles Moffat who knows quite a bit about firearms, their relative laws and also wrote the following articles:

Gun Control in Canada

Handguns in Canada


Charles Moffat comes from an unusual perspective because he was nearly murdered when he was 12 years old by a complete stranger, and yet he himself is a supporter of the right to own rifles/shotguns but opposes the legality of handguns.

You have every right to disagree with his, and our, opinions, and you may disagree with some of the information on our website and how it is presented.

You will note that at the bottom of the Subverting Feminism for Guns article we do actually recommend women consider carrying a handgun, and we even recommend the .357 Magnum. Some of you have pointed out that the .357 Magnum is a bit heavy and you're under the impression that "poor little weak women" can't even hold a Magnum properly. We assure you women are a lot stronger than you think and they're more than capable of pointing it at point blank range and hitting the target squarely in the chest (unless they're nearly blind of course).

The article was directed not so much at the NRA, but at gun culture in general since the NRA has no real presence in Canada or overseas and is basically a rebuke of gun propaganda which attempts to convince people that guns will protect you from rape/etc. Our personal belief however is that women in particular would benefit from more exercise and learning how to fight.

You can see my own article about Weightlifting for Women here:

And another about abdominal exercises here:

If any of you are also into boxing or martial arts and would like to contribute an article on boxing/martial arts for beginners we'd be interested in reading what you have to say and perhaps publishing it in our health section as an alternative exercise.

You will note that Moffat and myself don't completely agree on the handgun issue, and we certainly don't expect everyone to agree with either of us.

Suzanne MacNevin
Editor of the Lilith eZine

Comment (12)

Tue, Apr 8th - 12:04PM

Banning Handguns in Canada
Ever been shot at?

I have. When I was 12 years a complete stranger tried to murder myself, my best friend and my little sister. Indeed, I even have permanent hearing damage in my left year from that incident.

Roller coasters, horror movies, they don't scare me at all. Some lunatic with a gun however, that not only concerns me it pisses me right off.

In Canada we have a choice to make. Should we ban handguns and join dozens of other countries with strict anti-handgun laws that have significantly lower crime rates?

Yes, handguns don't kill people. People kill people, but it is far easier to kill someone when you can pull out an easily hidden handgun and shoot them in the face.

In the USA people have the right to bear arms, but in Canada it is not a right. It is a privilege. But what is the point of owning a handgun? You don't hunt with it. Its not the greatest to protect your family with (a shotgun would be better suited to protecting your home/family) and its only purpose, seriously, is to kill people.

You walk up to them, pull the gun out of your pocket and shoot them until they're dead. Point blank. The same way John Lennon died.

Toronto Mayor David Miller has made a petition to ban handguns in Canada. We are urging fellow Canadians to sign it.

By making handguns illegal we will be able to prosecute criminals more easily and put them behind bars for longer periods of time. We will able to tighten up on gun traffic coming into Canada from the USA and prevent those guns from getting into the hands of Canada's youth.

Charles Moffat
Assistant Editor of the Lilith eZine

Here's what Mayor Miller has to say:

Toronto is a safe city but we continue to face unacceptable incidents of gun violence. There is something we can do as Torontonians and as Canadians.

We must join together to call on the Parliament of Canada to ban the private ownership of handguns. Mayor David Miller asks that you add your name to the City of Toronto's petition for a Canada-wide handgun ban.

Using the links below, please fill out the petition online, print it out and have others join us in banning handguns and learn more about this critical issue.

Sign the online petition to ban handguns in Canada

blue bullet Printable petition
blue bullet News release
blue bullet Mayor David Miller's letter to Prime Minister Stephen Harper
blue bullet Report to Executive Committee: Update on Toronto Gun Violence Strategy
blue bullet Fact sheet: Impact of firearms In Canada

Download the latest version of the free Acrobat Reader Get Acrobat Reader

Gun Control in Canada - The History of Gun Laws in Canada

In 1995, Bill C-68 introduced new, stricter, gun control legislation. The current legislation provides harsher penalties for crimes involving firearm use, ...

Handguns in Canada - The Canada eZine

"Quebec and Ontario, the two largest provinces in the country want a handgun ban. That's a pretty good place to start," Bryant said. Gun dealers are pretty ...

Comment (1)

Sun, Apr 6th - 5:03PM

April 6th 2008 - The Sunday Edition

The Lilith eZine Sunday Edition

Why did the Turkey cross the road? To join the European Union.

Sorry, I couldn't resist poking fun at the name we westerners call the Republic of Turkey or Türkiye Cumhuriyeti. (I also think Cum hurry yeti is quite funny.)

The Republic of Turkey sits literally on the border between Asia and Europe (making it one of very few transcontinental countries), and likewise its culture is a mixture of east and west. For 85 years now Turkey has been growing as a secular and democratic republic ever since the Ottoman Empire fell in 1923.

Turkey is also the location of the legendary city of Troy, boasts more ancient temples and palaces than both Greece and Egypt combined and has neolithic architecture dating back to the stone age. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1922) was one of the longest lasting and most widespread empires of the pre-industrial age (the Roman Empire was slightly larger, but lasted only 500 years).

Turkey helped the allies during WWII, was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945, helped the United States during the Korean War, was a bulwark of stability against the Soviets during the Cold War, has had some diplomatic problems with Cyprus that are now being solved, and is a major source of oil for the rest of Europe with major pipelines from the Middle East and the Black Sea traveling through Turkey.

Today Turkey has a population of 71 million people but has a per capita GDP of approx. $9300, which is to say that most Turks are dirt poor despite the economic growth of recent years (5.1% in 2007 and sustained high growth over the last 2 decades). 20% of the Turkish population lives below the poverty line, but things are improving.

And they would improve a lot faster if they became an EU member. Turkey is currently in the process of becoming a full EU member and only yesterday Turkish President Abdullah Gul held a summit meeting with French President Nicolas Sarkozy in Bucharest. Sarkozy expressed that the "Year of Turkey" in France in 2009 will help eradicate negative notions on Turkey.

And what are the negative notions about Turkey? Well, they did fight on the side of Austrians/Germans during WWI, but have since redeemed themselves. Oh, and 99% of Turkey's population is Muslim, which makes them an excellent model for other Muslim states on how democracy works. France has a strong anti-Muslim community...

But really those seem kind of minor. I think the major problem with Turkey (asides from the name) is that most people don't really know much about Turkey's culture, history and arts (let alone the language

Here to help remedy that we've compiled an overview of the history of art in Turkey. Check it out below.

Suzanne MacNevin
Editor of the Lilith eZine

The Art History Archive

Turkish Artists

Turkish Feminist Artists

Ismail Acar

Hoca Ali Riza

Avni Arbas

Esref Armagan

Tomur Atagok

Bedri Baykam

Nevin Çokay

Adnan Coker

Gürkan Coskun

Abidin Dino

Burhan Cahit Dogançay

Erkan Genis

Bahadir Gökay

Nazmi Ziya Güran

Osman Hamdi Bey

Abdulcelil Levni

Setenay Özbek

Seker Ahmet Pasa

Fikret Muallâ Saygi

Fahrelnissa Zeid

The Canada eZine

Funding Ontario's Schools - Privatization of Education

The Commodication of Students - Privatization of Education

The Art History Archive, Feminist eZine and Lilith eZine are subsidiaries of the Lilith Gallery Network.

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Sat, Apr 5th - 4:11PM

Our WebRing Experiment
On March 8th we began a little experiment to determine the value of advertising on WebRing. Click here to see the original post.

We decided to boost our spending on WebRing by $6/month, to see if there was any noticeable jump in visitors to the Lilith Gallery Network.

Almost 1 month later we have the results.

MonthUnique visitorsNumber of visitsPagesHitsBandwidth
Jan 20081938712332689645737746195162.16 GB
Feb 200821048725414110341578450589176.87 GB
Mar 200823817128671112178559913996217.94 GB

As you can see there was approx. a 10% increase over the previous months of January and February. However, this isn't necessarily a jump due to WebRing alone.

If we look at the daily results there is a negligible increase after March 8th, but again we cannot be certain that is due to WebRing alone.

Pages: 35352Hits: 286119Bandwidth: 5.98 GB Number of visits: 9911Pages: 42509Hits: 344305Bandwidth: 7.25 GB Number of visits: 10854Pages: 44076Hits: 367488Bandwidth: 7.58 GB Number of visits: 9926Pages: 39731Hits: 333806Bandwidth: 7.02 GB Number of visits: 8864Pages: 35022Hits: 284925Bandwidth: 6.28 GB Number of visits: 8841Pages: 33632Hits: 281526Bandwidth: 6.12 GB Number of visits: 8081Pages: 32476Hits: 275378Bandwidth: 6.30 GB Number of visits: 7701Pages: 32058Hits: 259367Bandwidth: 5.45 GB Number of visits: 8858Pages: 36318Hits: 300213Bandwidth: 6.37 GB Number of visits: 11639Pages: 46144Hits: 371967Bandwidth: 7.66 GB Number of visits: 10016Pages: 39788Hits: 327583Bandwidth: 6.90 GB Number of visits: 10554Pages: 44704Hits: 355081Bandwidth: 7.61 GB Number of visits: 10893Pages: 45559Hits: 358378Bandwidth: 7.40 GB Number of visits: 9078Pages: 38166Hits: 299939Bandwidth: 6.43 GB Number of visits: 8209Pages: 35270Hits: 282550Bandwidth: 5.96 GB Number of visits: 9078Pages: 38712Hits: 315979Bandwidth: 6.57 GB Number of visits: 9971Pages: 40957Hits: 335489Bandwidth: 6.82 GB Number of visits: 12156Pages: 52955Hits: 428502Bandwidth: 9.01 GB Number of visits: 10605Pages: 44457Hits: 358323Bandwidth: 7.77 GB Number of visits: 9559Pages: 40059Hits: 322583Bandwidth: 7.34 GB Number of visits: 8112Pages: 37391Hits: 287955Bandwidth: 6.25 GB Number of visits: 7715Pages: 38978Hits: 290122Bandwidth: 6.12 GB Number of visits: 8248Pages: 37224Hits: 293378Bandwidth: 6.40 GB Number of visits: 9781Pages: 43199Hits: 344403Bandwidth: 7.47 GB Number of visits: 9636Pages: 40927Hits: 336510Bandwidth: 7.02 GB Number of visits: 10057Pages: 42342Hits: 350171Bandwidth: 8.06 GB Number of visits: 12259Pages: 55165Hits: 428487Bandwidth: 10.31 GB Number of visits: 9104Pages: 40394Hits: 373382Bandwidth: 10.24 GB Number of visits: 7647Pages: 34607Hits: 292913Bandwidth: 7.36 GB Number of visits: 8865Pages: 39657Hits: 338264Bandwidth: 8.43 GB Number of visits: 2079Pages: 10026Hits: 88910Bandwidth: 2.45 GB  Number of visits: 9248.74Pages: 39285.65Hits: 319806.32Bandwidth: 7.03 GB

Here is what we do know however.

In February we received 5275 clicks from WebRing. In March we received 5840 (about a 10% increase).

But what about our theory that promoting on WebRing also boosts our Google Ranking and boosts hits from Google and other search engines?

Well during February we received:

- Google97347
- Google (Images)74072
- Yahoo11009
- MSN3553
- AOL1684
- Ask Jeeves1079
- AltaVista798
- Dogpile337
- Other search engines226
- Netscape221

And in March we received:

- Google122550
- Google (Images)81227
- Yahoo11244
- MSN4680
- AOL1844
- Ask Jeeves1181
- AltaVista756
- Other search engines496
- Dogpile367
- Netscape259

So that is almost a 26% increase for Google search. Other search engines went up as well, although not as noticeably. So far our theory appears to be accurate.

(Yes, we are aware that February had 2 fewer days than March. However if you compare to our January stats, February actually received more visitors and hits than January.)

But how do we know this isn't just a temporary blip?

Time will tell. We will be releasing our April, May and June results in the coming months.

The summer months are the worst time of the year statistically, but if we can sustain continual growth despite the warm summer months (and despite an economic recession in the USA) then we believe we've found the smartest way to advertise.

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Sat, Apr 5th - 3:12PM

Check out...

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Fri, Apr 4th - 2:49PM

Fears of U.S. recession growing

Bleak outlook for North American economy...

Financial market turbulence and fears of a U.S. recession are expected to lead to a subdued performance by the world economy this year, posing risks for euro zone growth, the Central Bank of Ireland said on Friday.

"There is now a growing consensus that a significant downturn in global activity is underway, with risks to the outlook seen to be firmly to the downside," the bank said in its quarterly bulletin.

"Following a number of years of strong growth, the prospects are for a more subdued performance by the global economy this year."

The bank said since late last summer, global financial markets and central banks had been dealing with the fallout from problems related to a "major correction in many financial asset prices," which had helped trigger a global slowdown.

"The resulting increased uncertainty and international financial market turbulence are proving to be more wide ranging and prolonged than was hoped," it said.

The bank said the main risks related to the "still evolving" situation in global financial markets.

"Much will depend on how events play out in the U.S.," it said. "Recent data suggest that the U.S. economy has weakened significantly since late last year, with concerns heightening about the possibility of a recession."

The bank said euro zone activity had slowed in the final quarter of 2007 after recording strong growth in the first nine months.

It said while the "underlying fundamentals" of the euro zone remained favourable, with employment growth and corporate balance sheets remaining healthy, evidence in recent months suggested the pace of growth had "remained below potential."

"As is the case elsewhere in the global economy, uncertainty about the prospects for euro area growth remain unusually high and risks surrounding the outlook are on the downside," it said.

Despite the softening in growth momentum, euro zone inflation had sharply risen in recent months due the spike in oil and food prices.

The bank said headline euro zone inflation was expected to remain elevated in the months ahead before starting to decelerate.

It said the European Central Bank's Governing Council viewed inflationary risks to the upside due to the potential for higher oil and food prices and scope for wage rises.

"The Governing Council has signalled its determination to ensure that such second-round effects and upside risks to price stability do not materialise and that medium and long-term inflation expectations remain firmly anchored in line with price stability," it said.

The American Recession of 2007, 2008 and Beyond - The Politics eZine

On January 21st, 22nd and 23rd stock markets around the world tumbled dramatically as investors feared an American recession would create a global recession ...

Recession Hits Automotive Sector - The Automotive eZine

"We are very lucid on the situation of the industry that there is a recession in the United States, at least in the car market,'' Carlos Ghosn told ...

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Tue, Apr 1st - 7:33PM

Overthrowing Robert Mugabe

Dictator for life Robert Mugabe is near the end of his reign.

Zimbabwe's opposition said they were on the verge of taking power today after dismissing speculation that they would negotiate a managed exit for veteran President Robert Mugabe.

Both opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai and Mugabe's government strongly denied foreign media speculation that a deal had been reached to arrange the departure of Mugabe after 28 years of uninterrupted power.

"There is no discussion and this is just a speculative story," Tsvangirai told a news conference when asked about reports that his aides and ruling ZANU-PF party officials had negotiated a deal.

Brushing aside projections showing he would fail to win an absolute majority and would be forced into a runoff against Mugabe, Tsvangirai said: "Today we face a new challenge, that of governance."

Speculation that Mugabe would stand down voluntarily rather than face a runoff began after ZANU-PF sources and independent monitors said that although Tsvangirai had won, he would fall just short of the 51 percent needed for outright victory.

Mugabe's spokesman George Charamba described reports of an exit deal as "nonsense" and dismissed rumours that the president would address the nation on television tonight.

Mugabe has ruled Zimbabwe since independence from Britain in 1980 but faced an unprecedented challenge in Saturday's elections because of a two-pronged opposition attack and the economic collapse of his once prosperous country, which has reduced much of the population to misery.

A senior Western diplomat in Harare told Reuters the international community was discussing ideas to try to persuade Mugabe to step down, "but I don't think there is anything firm on the table."

There are fears both inside and outside Zimbabwe that the three-week hiatus before a runoff vote would spark serious violence between security forces and militia loyal to Mugabe on one side and MDC supporters on the other.

Former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan said the election stand-off in Zimbabwe could turn into violence but hoped the country would avoid the bloodshed recently witnessed in Kenya after disputed elections there.

"Having just gone through this situation in Kenya, I hope there is not going to be a repeat in Zimbabwe, but given the nature of this you cannot exclude that there will be some violence," Annan, who brokered an end to the crisis in Kenya, told journalists in Lisbon.

The United States said it was time for Zimbabwe's electoral commission to issue results.

"It's clear the people of Zimbabwe have voted for change," said Gordon Johndroe, spokesman for the White House National Security Council.

No presidential results have been announced three days after polls closed, fuelling suspicions that Mugabe was trying to avoid defeat by rigging.

But two ZANU-PF party sources said today its projections showed Tsvangirai getting 48.3 percent against Mugabe's 43 percent, with former finance minister Simba Makoni taking 8 percent.

Latest results from the parliamentary election showed ZANU-PF with one more seat than the mainstream MDC, and five seats going to a breakaway faction of the opposition. 176 seats have now been announced from a total of 210.

Seven of Mugabe's ministers have lost their seats.

Tsvangirai and many foreign governments urged the electoral commission to speed up result announcements. He said the MDC would announce its own tally of the final result on Wednesday.

The opposition and international observers said Mugabe rigged the last presidential election in 2002. But some analysts say the groundswell of discontent over an economy in freefall is too great for him to fix the result this time without risking major unrest.

Zimbabweans are suffering the world's highest inflation of more than 100,000 percent, food and fuel shortages, and an HIV/AIDS epidemic that has contributed to a steep drop in life expectancy.

The opposition is expected to unite behind one candidate if there is a runoff, which would be held three weeks after last Saturday's election.

Learn More: Robert Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Dictator for Life?

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Tue, Apr 1st - 12:20PM

Poorest nations being left out in the cold on global warming
BANGKOK - Outraged poor nations bearing the brunt of global warming have become increasingly bold in UN-led climate talks, but some worry that recent trysts of large countries are leaving them out in the cold.

A grouping of 192 countries under the United Nations is leading the way in negotiating a groundbreaking climate change treaty, and most of its members are currently in Bangkok to try to hammer out a two-year work plan.

The meeting comes soon after the United States chaired a meeting of 16 nations most responsible for global warming, and ahead of a special climate summit on the sidelines of the Group of Eight summit of rich nations.

"We haven't been invited to either of those processes," said Espen Ronneberg, a Samoa-based climate change advisor to the Association of Small Island States, on the sidelines of the Bangkok talks.

"We need to have a global consensus on climate change, so to have a separate process that is not completely inclusive is not that helpful."

While major developing nations such as China and India are part of the big initiatives, the Group of 77, a bloc of developing nations, said it has not been invited.

"The balance has to come from everybody, all the representative groups, being around the table. Not specialised specific groups which have almost the same purpose -- that's a problem," said Byron Blake, deputy representative to the United Nations of current Group of 77 chair Antigua and Barbuda.

The world has until 2009 to draft a new pact on battling global warming, which should come into force by 2012, when current Kyoto Protocol targets for rich nations to slash greenhouse gas emissions expire.

A report by the world's leading climate scientists last year warned that drought, floods and storms will increase as global temperatures rise, putting the health of millions at risk and hitting the poor countries hardest.

As they see climate change begin to effect their environments and economies, impoverished nations are becoming more confident and vocal, said Antonio Hill, policy adviser to development group Oxfam.

"There is a very dramatic difference between this year and last year in the negotiations versus 10 years ago or even five years ago," he said.

Developing countries want the rich world to commit to the most ambitious cuts in greenhouse gas emissions -- which trap the sun's heat and cause global warming -- and pledge to transfer 'green' technologies and fund climate change-battling initiatives in poorer countries.

Many rich nations led by the United States, however, are pressing for developing countries also to commit to slashing emissions. They argue that the lines have blurred between rich and poor nations, with China expected soon to be the world's top emitter.

US President George W. Bush launched his own climate initiative gathering 16 large nations responsible for 80 percent of harmful emissions, which met two months ago in Hawaii.

Japan, meanwhile, will hold separate talks on the sidelines of the G8 meeting in July, and has invited Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Korea and South Africa to join the G8 nations.

In mid-March, Japan hosted to a 20-nation climate meeting in suburban Tokyo.

The UN's climate chief Yvo de Boer told AFP that the new initiatives could be very constructive, so long as they feed back into the UN-led efforts.

"The (US-led) major economies process and the outcome of the G8 meeting last year very clearly recognises that there is only one place where the real negotiations happen and that's the (UN) Convention on Climate Change," he said.

Blake urged big polluters to listen to all of the voices from the developing world, rather than focus on exclusive sideline initiatives.

"It is almost a defensive move by a club of people who have been the cause of the major problems," Blake told AFP.

"Naturally they are going to see how to create a so-called solution which will have least impact on themselves, where they have to make the least contribution," he added.

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